The Importance of Using Visual Concepts in The Production of Video Games

Responsibilities of an artwork studio and its impact on the production of a game.

Within the whole structure of a game development studio, building a good team and effective planning is critical to any project.

Pre-production is a crucial time when game design decisions will reflect the bottom line.

A fundamental part of this planning is the choice of the graphic characteristics of the project, where the function of a video game studio goes beyond the design of efficient mechanics and opens space for the creation of a visual identity that should reflect the objectives of the project at first sight.

Regardless of the platform where the project will be launched, the visual identity represents the player’s entrance to the world that is presented to him, it is by this element that the player identifies with the atmosphere, becomes familiar with the setting and the plot and is The main immersion tool the game can offer.

All this process of visual creation is in the hands of artwork studio and its professionals dedicated to artistic visual creation, responsible for video game art. The main function of the designer is the creation of interface mediated communication within the game, as in any work that uses design concepts, the function of artwork studio is to transmit information visually and interactively to the player.

Development of New Rendering Technologies

Over the years, the technology surrounding the gaming world has been growing ever faster, with new possibilities for more convincing and interactive visual simulation. The development of new engines, new production tools and the application of art concepts in productions, brings the gaming industry closer and closer to giants such as the film industry for example, in terms of investments, profits and media notoriety.

The responsibility of an artwork studio in defining the visual identity of the project is immense, defining color palettes, styles and compositions within design concepts directly influence the player’s experience.

It is the visual communication that tells the player whether an element of the scenario can be explosive, or whether a character is ally, neutral or villain, plus many self-explanatory information that saves time leaves the experience more fluid.

Independent Video Game Studio

Acting against the way of the big producers, the small independent game development studios, take the visual appeal in the background and focus on the gameplay and the constant experience of satisfaction to the player.

Using retro styles, taking advantage of already established mechanics, games of categories like 2d beat ups and side scrolling games are increasingly common, especially on the mobile platforms, Android itself has become the main way to produce and publish games independently.

In the early days of the gaming industry, games were made exclusively by programmers who understood absolutely nothing of design or visual arts, which left these games with a raw look and with little, if any, environmental interaction with the player.

Some Answers to Your Questions About Gambling Addiction

How Do I Know If I Have A Gambling Addiction?
You will know if you have a gambling addiction if gambling has affected your life negatively socially, emotionally, financially and spiritually. If you have gambled alone, and have missed work, lost more than you could afford, or lied about gambling, you more than likely have a gambling addiction. “Compulsive Gambling” is considered an impulse control disorder and is characterized by unstoppable thoughts and uncontrollable impulses to gamble. “Problem Gambling” is considered less severe than compulsive gambling, but it is still a very serious problem.

Someone in my family is addicted to gambling. What should I do?
There are many paths you could take when a family member is addicted to gambling. You can go to a gamanon meeting yourself to get 12 -Step support from other family members of gamblers.(Check links and resources). This might be a good first step in finding out how to approach your family member, since every situation is different. Please check resources page for more information on this topic.

I have a gambling addiction and I have lost a lot of money. I am in debt, and I do not know what to do. Can you help?
Going into debt is one of the biggest after-effects of a gambling addiction. It can effect the gambler long after he or she stops gambling and is one of the long-term consequences of gambling addiction. When you attend a Gamblers Anonymous 12-Step Group you can find support from trusted members on how to deal with your debt problems. Please also visit the links and resources page to find out more about debt and credit solutions as a result of your gambling addiction. Remember, gambling addiction is not a money problem.. it is an emotional and spiritual problem with financial consequences.

Can I have a gambling addiction if I go to the casino.. but mostly win?
Yes. There are 4 phases of a gambling addiction. 1. Winning Phase: Usually starts with a big win and a belief that good luck will continue indefinitely. 2. Losing Phase: More pre-occupied with gambling. You are gambling alone, missing work, lying about your whereabouts, and beginning to chase your losses. 3. Desperation Phase: This is truly characterized by a loss of control, preoccupation with gambling, defaulting on most debt, cheating or stealing,loss of job or primary relationship. 4. Hopeless Phase: You hit rock bottom. You may also start abusing drugs or alcohol. Suicide thoughts and attempts are common in this phase.

I gamble when I am lonely and depressed. How come?
You are most likely known as an “escape gambler” You gamble to escape emotional pain. Most “escape gamblers” can become addicted to slot machines, online gambling, and bingo. An “action gambler” is someone who enjoys risk taking and gambles on games of skill such as sports betting, the stock market, and cards. “Action-gamblers” have been traditionally male, however, the genders are becoming well represented in each group.

Online Gambling Debts – How to Deal With the Causes and Effects of Online Gambling Debts

One thing there is no shortage of on the internet is opportunities to gamble. We are spoilt for choice, whether your fancy is for betting on sports, playing virtual card games or bingo. One of the things that makes internet gambling so potentially dangerous is that it is easily available for 24 hours a day. The real danger comes when you combine this factor with the fact that it is so easy to feel detached from the reality of money spent online. Gradually racking up a debt online does not feel the same as handing over hard earned cash from our wallet, so it is that much easier to lose track of how your online spending is mounting up.

For these reasons, debt problems from internet gambling are on the increase. In this article I hope to clarify some of the legal issues around online gambling, as well as providing some advice on dealing with the underlying problem and the debts that result from it.

Legal Issues Around Gambling Debts

When we talk about debt from online gambling it is important to be clear about the nature of the debt, because who the money is owed to does make a difference. People are often unsure about the legality of debts from online gambling. In the UK you can gamble legally on credit and incur a debt, but this debt is not then enforceable through the law.

However, there is an important point to make here, which is that this only applies when you are using credit extended by the company offering the gambling (casino, bookie, etc). If you use a credit card company to pay for internet gambling, that is a legally enforceable debt the same as it would be in any other circumstance, because you have borrowed money from the credit card company, not the casino. It is now against the law in the US to use a credit card to pay for online gambling.

You will find that many credit cards will regard a payment to an internet gambling website as a cash advance. This is then clearly borrowing money from the card company and the debt you incur can be pursued through legal action. If you do use a credit card to pay for online gambling this way, you should be aware that cash advances on credit cards are almost always charged at a much higher rate of interest than normal credit for purchases.

How To Deal With Debts Caused By Gambling

In dealing with gambling debts, there are two separate issues to tackle. One is the debt itself, and the other is the habit of gambling that led to the debt. Even if the debt is dealt with, it is likely to build up again if the root cause is not tackled too. Let us first consider the problem of paying off the debt.

The principles for tackling debt are nearly always the same, irrespective of the causes of the debt. To permanently deal with debt you should not be considering borrowing more money or paying anyone to deal with your debt for you. These courses of action are likely to deepen your debt in the long run.

With a little advice, you can deal with your debts yourself, by contacting your creditors and agreeing terms for repayment that you can afford. There is clearly more to it than that, but it is beyond the scope of this particular article. The process is straightforward and allows you to take back control of your finances.

Factors Leading To Internet Gambling Debts

It may help to have an understanding of why some people can become addicted to online gambling. The following are often contributory factors:

Gambling can be thrilling, leading to an adrenalin rush and feelings that we want to recreate time and again.

Many addictive gamblers think that they can win money and that this will solve all their other problems. It actually just leads to more problems by creating debt, which can then make it seem even more important to win the money, creating a vicious circle.

Addiction to gambling can actually be a mental disorder, which can lead to a compulsive need to gamble.

Being addicted to online gambling is often associated with other personal difficulties, including depression and stress.

Online Gambling Debts – The Warning Signs You may have a problem if you can answer yes to any of the following questions:

When you are not gambling, do you think about gambling and how you are going to get back to it?

Have you ever missed work because of online gambling?

Do you feel the need to gamble again after winning or losing?

Is the length of time you spend on gambling getting longer and have you ever spent longer online than you thought you had?

Are you secretive about your gambling with family or friends and do you dislike other people bringing it up?

Practical Steps To Tackle Online Gambling Addiction If you think you may have a problem with online gambling, here are a few simple steps you can take to begin to reduce or stop the habit:

Be open with friends and family and seek help with the problem.

Cancel any accounts you have with websites for online gambling.

Consider using software that blocks your access to online gambling websites.

Minecraft – Where Gamers Thrive!

Minecraft is an amazing game which is very popular among kids. Let’s split the word Minecraft into two, mine and craft. Mine means dig while craft means build. It is also known as a “sandbox game.”

You are supposed to build your own home on a virtual land by using 3D blocks, some more resources and most importantly your creativity. It’s a great tool to explore your imagination and know your original genius.

Elaborating

Do you love adventures? This game is perfect for you! You have to begin from scratch. You have to build a grand castle from the simplest of things available.

There are 5 gameplay modes available:

Survival mode- Here, the player has to build his secure world, find ways to protect it and take care of oneself.

Creative mode- This is where you are presented with unlimited resources and also an ability to fly!

Adventure mode- In this mode, you can use custom maps and not assign or destroy any blocks with tools.

Spectator mode- You can fly around shooting any block, I mean the video-shooting one, but cannot destroy any.

Hardcore mode- This is a difficult mode. On the death of the player, the world created is deleted as well. When he dies on a Minecraft server set to hardcore mode, he is permanently banned from that server too. You might be wondering what is a Minecraft server? They are multiple types of servers that allow you to play online or using LAN with your co-gamers.

You can also make some changes off record. They are called Minecraft modes. You can add some extra things, like an animal and it gives the player more powers.

Target audience

When we were small, we used to think being big is great! As we grew, we understood that it’s just an illusion. Now, we crave for those precious days. No tension, no worries. Nostalgia! Anyways, this game targets children of this age group, where they are in a stance or in-between childhood and adolescence, usually 13 and above.

Why is it so well-known?

Secret revealed!

There are two kinds of boys. The first types are those who you would find easily approachable, flirting with girls or completely extrovert and type two are those who like sitting at home, playing games. And unfortunately, type two is more as compared to type one. That’s the secret!

This doesn’t mean girls don’t play Minecraft games, maybe they are comparatively less in number. Saying Minecraft games is not appropriate though! It’s a culture in itself. Instead, you can say there are different things similar to Minecraft.

Also, Minecraft has no strings attached. It is inexhaustible. Your imagination can go beyond limits and it gives you that flexibility of creating a fancy and attractive house, castle, farm and much more.

Is it worth playing?

Yes, Minecraft is really good when it comes to improving your management and organizational skills and exploring your creativity. It’s a great choice to kill time! When you play with your friends, it builds team spirit in you.

It is recommended for autistic and ADHD kids who can create new friends, communicate and improve their social skills. There is a Minecraft server specially for these Special children too!

It’s a trendy way to learn, and is also implemented at schools too! They are trying something new, out of the box! How fun would that be!

Conclusion

Are you a gamer? In a good sense though. If yes, then I am sure you might be aware of Minecraftand if no, I am still sure that you have at least heard of it sometime, somewhere!

Games Can Be Much More Useful Than You Give It Credit For

The age old sayings have always said that games are the best way to keep you away from complete dumbness and boredom.

Games are the perfect sort of escape from a monotonous life and it helps to refresh your brains from extreme tiredness and same old routine.

In today’s world, video games have risen to an unexpected level of entertainment. It has gained a lot of popularity and has come up with different kinds of variations in its content.

With technology speeding up in lighting speed, Video Games have created quite a name for itself amidst the younger generation and it happens to have a lot of health benefits as well.

1. A healthy shot for the development of your vision

A lot of discoveries and research by scientists have led to the belief that there are certain games which if played in moderation can help you in improving your eye sight for the better. Do not bend more towards straining your eyes, but a moderate amount of times spent focusing and enjoying video games was seen to get a minimal amount of improvement in the affected eye. It has been heard saying lot that watching too much of television is harmful for the vision, but in the case of video games, the outcome is opposite but again it should be done in moderation and the limit should not be exceeded.

2. Getting the crowd to like knowing about the history of places and people

Some of the video games involve historical excerpts and references in their video games. A lot of these games use a historical background to create a story around the game so that it comes out in a flow. These uses of historical characters and places can get kids excited to know more about such historical facts and gain their interest. Thus these video games are a sort of educational inspiration as well to spark the interest regarding history amidst the players.

3. Helps in getting some physical exercises done

There are certain games that would require you to participate a lot more and get your entire body involved thus indulging in a lot of bodily movements. However there are some games in which even a simple handheld controller would drive you towards some physical activity. Certain sports games such as football, basket ball, and long tennis can motivate and help the children to practice and enjoy the same skills outdoors as well. So it is not like it is only limited to indoor activities or indoor involvement.

The Importance of Games in Our Daily Lives

Talking about games, who does not wish to play? They are an integral part of our lives and whether kids or adults, none can refrain from it. They are both a part of recreation and a great form of being physically fit and even getting rewarded. Games also teach us about many ethics and values which even help us later in life. Many a times the importance and benefits of playing games gets unnoticed and it is thus significant that one keeps in mind the following points. Let us take a look here…

Points to ponder while playing games

• The main constituents of any game is to reach a target, follow the set rules, face trials and tests and have proper interface.
• Games also help to stimulate the decision making skills and allow to take challenges.
• There are varieties of games, such as games that require devices, bound by a few rules to be followed, need special skill sets. There are indoor and outdoor games, online games, video console gaming, some teach us about coordination and attention to detail, some require role play, a few that teach us about playing as a team, etc.
• A few games are also a part of sports and playing sports makes a person physically active and fit as it is a form of physical exercise and stimulates the whole body movement.

Benefits of playing games

• By playing games one can enhance the retention power and even stimulate the competitive spirit.
• Teaches about coordination and even brings out creativity.
• Playing games is a great source of learning and one can learn from it regularly.
• It helps in reducing the stress levels which are generally higher in the present scenario.
• Playing games in groups also help us to increase our socializing skills and keeps us in sync with others.
• With the intention of reaching a goal, we make conscious and deliberate effort to be more focussed, which helps us in improving our attention power.
• Games are a good way to teach one to accept defeat in life and even face hardships.

Good health is the key to a happy and successful life and games in the form of sports or in other forms teaches one, skills which are required later to face a tougher life. Thus games make you a lot stronger, independent and helps in facing the world with full rigour. They even make you accustomed to the bitter taste of defeat and also builds the morale and prepares you to be even more determined and taste victory. So, it is truly said “All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy”!

Traditional Gambling Versus Online Gambling

An Overview

Gambling nowadays is not related to a mere recreation activity albeit it has now taken a new direction into business and industry. For some it’s a pleasure activity and for the others it is a lucrative business. Although gambling is not at all a new sport which has emerged in this century, it has been a favorite of our ancestors and the historians date back the involvement into this activity to prehistoric times. It has been factually proved that even the early caveman was a gambler.

Gambling to a layman would mean sport involving money and an easy way to multiply the same. Although being a part f this sport means staking of one thing or the other. History has witnessed several incidents where not only wealth and material objects were a part of this game but also one’s own identity or the ownership of a family member was staked.

Gambling activity in this century has taken a two dimensional outlook. With high paced lives and scarcity of time for almost everything, even recreation activities are time bound. To this new age life, Internet comfortably snuggles in and creates a position of its own, thus giving room to Online Gambling. As compared to traditional gambling practices where one has to be physically available in the arena of casino, online gambling gives us the comfort of gambling in the privacy of our homes or café.

To further elaborate on both the categories of gambling lets have a closer look into the basic features of both. Traditional gambling basically has three types of games involved namely the table games, random games and gaming machines. Almost all the categories in traditional gambling requires parting with physical cash and getting them converted into chips which are of various denominations and are then further used in the game. The only division of game which does not require conversion of cash into chips is that of slot machines. Here the gambler has to place a quarter into the slot machine and pull on the lever. There are still some games where cash is deposited, but that is mainly confined to games which involve huge jackpots. Generally in such games the basic deposit only sums up to a huge amounts.

Online gambling, on the other hand, is a relatively comfortable way of enjoying the game. Needless to say the reason for its manifold popularity goes to the time factor and the availability of pleasure at the click of a button. Moreover, in order to attract more and more people into online gambling the owners make their sites tempting by offering various payback schemes and added advantages to its members. All sorts of games can be selected by just logging on the website. Basically the games available in this form of gambling can be broadly divided into two categories, one in which a particular software needs to be downloaded and the other which can be played without it as well.

Comparative Analysis of Traditional Gambling and Online Gambling

Although online gambling is gaining momentum, traditional gambling is still the undisputed leader in the business. There are pros and cons in both forms of gambling and it depends upon the personal liking of each gambler as to which form suits his or her requirement.

In traditional gambling where one can find the adrenaline rising and pressure on one’s nerves, the same is a miss in online gambling to some extent. The pleasure of winning and celebrating can be only enjoyed in the traditional gambling. The drive behind playing it again and again lies in winning and celebrating, thus giving instant boost in business of the casino owners. Winning of one motivates thousands others to remain in the game. Thus if we see the involvement, pleasure and financial aspect of gambling, no doubt traditional gambling would take a lead into it.

Online gambling, on the other hand, suits one and all to the extent of people residing in remote areas where availability of an actual casino is a miss. All it requires is a basic internet connection and you are into the pleasure of the sport. It gives you the leverage of time and space. Another advantage of online gambling can be that one can enjoy huge payouts and bonuses, but along with it the companies keep a catch of not paying the entire earned amount in order to make the gambler play for long. The reason for making a player gamble for longer durations is that generally the longer you play the chances of you losing increase, thereby making the casino owners reap higher profit margins.

In terms of business traditional gambling is favorable to the casino owners. They have all the tools and tactics available to make a gambler play and stay for long which in turn means that the odds increase in the favour of casino owners. But for a gambler, traditional form of gambling may be of loss at times as the earnings are lesser than the actual amount earned. Generally the payouts are in terms of 5 or 6 times the actual amount put at stake but the casinos pay out lesser and so results in visible loss.

Conclusion

Gambling in the eyes of gambler has its own dimensions which cannot be gauged by the critics. Form of gambling may have difference of opinions but the ultimate pleasure of sport cannot be undermined in either form of gambling.

On the other hand gambling as a line of business may mean totally different to the casino owners. They would have an altogether different stream of thoughts to analyze the two forms of gambling.

To sum up, both the forms of gambling have their own set of advantages and disadvantages and none of it can be said to be perfect. It totally depends upon the individual to choose from the options available which can satiate his or her desire.

The only common thing in both the streams is to set up individual limits and to keep his or her decisive powers strong so as to know when to draw the line.

The HQ Trivia Phenomenon

Live event trivia is a new gaming niche that has developed within the Apple iOS and Google Play App communities. The digital age has created this unique opportunity to combine trivia, pop culture and reality television into one nice bundle and for fans of these genres, we are better off, as a result.

HQ Trivia is a live game show that streams twice daily on your mobile device. The developers of this game are from the makers of Vine and it shows in their creativity.

Imagine a game show that is live and combines the excitement of predecessors like Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? and Jeopardy! with the old school feels of Trivial Pursuit.

One of the newer niches to develop within the last 12 months, the popularity arc has been nothing short of amazing. The concept for HQ Trivia is simple, yet addictive. Twice daily, a live host runs a feed. A series of twelve to fifteen questions are asked.

As a contestant, you have to answer each multiple choice question correctly. A wrong answer will eliminate you from the game. A correct answer advances you to the next question and fewer other contestants. At the end of the round, the contestants who have successfully answered all of the questions correctly get to split the money that’s in the jackpot.

Winnings have ranged from $0.25 to $6,500 USD. The number of contestants that play each game have a part to play in the amount of money available in the total jackpot. The number of remaining contestants, at the end of the round, will factor into the total winnings.

After you have downloaded the mobile app to your device, you’ll want to adjust the settings so that you can receive notifications. A few minutes before every round, you’ll receive a text message reminding you that the game is about to begin.

Playing this game for several months now, I can tell you that there is no legitimate way to “hack” or work around the game. Each question plays out in less than a minute, so there is no time to Google for answers or any of that other nonsense.

However, the best way to improve your testing ability and improve your chances of success would be to study the way the questions have been asked and answered in the past.

Harkening back to my college days, I can remember going to the Math Lab at Oklahoma State University and looking over old exams from my professors. This was important because it helped me understand the style of the exam, as well as commonalities within the multiple choice answers. Sure, I might have still flunked out of that Business Calculus course, but I was still able to learn, based on older exams.

I have a lot of free time on my hands these days. Mobile apps have been a way for me to keep my mind sharp, as my body mends from a cardiac arrest. If you happen to already be playing HQ Trivia, I highly recommend checking out sites that help you learn faster.

US Gambling in the Midst of UIGEA

Online gambling in United States is endangered with the passing of the UIGEA or Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act. It was enforced in 2007 and since then it has dramatically curtailed the online gambler population. Many gambling websites have already stopped operating and many online gamblers have controlled their urge to gamble for the fear of being caught.

Such scare continued to linger despite the efforts to assure people. A few online gambling sites offer gambling system in roulette in which the prizes double with succeeding loss. This martingale system aims to attract more players. Many people aren’t aware of this prohibition and so aren’t familiar with its specifics. This led to false notions, and because of that, information campaign regarding UIGEA has become necessary.

Gambling Sanction

The major implication of UIGEA is to prevent operation of online gambling sites, thereby, preventing players to gamble. This is a US law and is being enacted in two ways. First, it compels legal operations of gambling sites through qualification assessment and issuance of gambling license as administered by Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, which will oversee the legalities of operations. Second, other games shall be reclassified and redefined for delineation; hence, games like chess, roulette, and poker shall be removed from the UIGEA scope.

UIGEA does have a good result-security in gambling for US players. Since it tracks down different online gambling sites, it is almost impossible for them to run away, supposing they commit crimes. The main issue is that the UIGEA stirred the industry drastically. A more pressing situation is its ineffective enforcement. The irregularity in enforcement made UIGEA a culprit of setbacks in the online gambling world, no less.

General Picture

UIGEA is so inefficiently enforced that it has become a culprit of profound problems encountered in online gambling today. The issue has a lot to do with the shareholders who invested funds in gambling sites. Because of the impending prohibition of gambling, many shareholders withdrew their shares from online gambling sites because of fear of bankruptcy. This slump causes many gambling websites to shut down operations. As more sites closed, people began to believe that it was going to be the end of online gambling in the United States. Many of these online venues lay the blame on UIGEA for their closure and non-operation. What was supposed to safeguard the gambling market lead to its near demise.

This ineffective enforcement of UIGEA also caused another repercussion. As it is not implemented in some states, there is confusion across the country as to the scope of this law, whether it aims to ban gambling and ban citizens to gamble online or not. Nevertheless, UIGEA does not necessarily prohibit American players to join online gambling websites. But some states did not understand the bill correctly. So many of the US gamers have now succumbed to the idea that they could no longer enjoy gambling online. Despite the number of states allowing gambling, the anxiety in the whole country is very real. As you can see the truth, the nation’s opinion regarding gambling is not in unison. And up to the time that UIGEA continues to be in partial implementation, this nationwide confusion goes on.

Online Gambling

Internet Casinos Inc. (ICI), the world’s first online casino, started operating from August 18, 1995, with 18 different games. Since then more than 1,400 websites, mostly domiciled in small Caribbean islands, have given rise to an industry that grosses over $3 billion a year. In fact no business on the Internet earns more revenue than online gambling. Out of the estimated 14.5 million online gamblers, almost 30 per cent are from Asia.

A bet can be placed in minutes. Anyone with a credit card can set up an offshore currency account with a gambling site, leaving them free to place bets on sporting events like Wimbledon, cricket, horse racing and Formula One, or join a virtual casino to play slot machines, roulette, blackjack, poker etc. Companies like Flutter and Betmart accept bets on anything from who is going to win the Nobel Prize to whether Madonna is getting a divorce or not. Bets can range from a nickel to thousands of dollars and according to whether you win or lose the amount is automatically adjusted to your account. The final balance can then either be mailed to you or left for future bets.

The law relating to online gambling in India needs to be understood within the country’s socio-cultural context. At the outset, gambling, although not absolutely prohibited in India, does not receive express encouragement by policy makers. The Indian organized gambling industry is estimated to be worth around US$8 billion. While stringent laws have checked the proliferation of casinos and high street gaming centres as in many other countries, barring the state of Goa, the lottery business remains the most post popular form of gambling.

Though gambling is not illegal, it is a highly controlled and regulated activity. Modern India is a quasi-federal Constitutional democracy and the powers to legislate are distributed at the federal as well as the state levels. Gambling features in List II of the Constitution of India, this implies that the state governments have the authority to enact laws in order to regulate gambling in the respective states. Thus, there is no single law governing gambling in the entire country. Different states have different laws governing gambling in addition to the laws that have an application across the country. While some states have banned lotteries, other states allow state government lotteries marketed and distributed in other lottery playing and promoting states through private entities.

Regulation of gambling

The courts have defined gambling as ‘the payment of a price for a chance to win a prize’. The dominant element of skill or chance shall determine the nature of the game. A game may be deemed to be gambling if the element of chance or luck predominates in deciding its outcome. As a result, Indian courts have held that betting on horse racing and a few card games are not gambling. The right to undertake the business of gambling and lotteries is not considered as a fundamental right protected by the Constitution of India. It may however be pointed out that the state government run lotteries make significant contributions to the state exchequer of several state governments and the Union government, and hence there is a resistance to complete prohibition.

The following legislation is pertinent to gambling:

The Public Gaming Act, 1867

This Act provides punishment for public gambling and for keeping of a ‘common gaming house’. This Act also authorises the state governments to enact laws to regulate public gambling in their respective jurisdictions. The penal legislations in respective states have been amended in accordance with their policy on gambling. However, this legislation does not have any direct impact on online gambling unless a wide interpretation is given to the definition of common gaming house so as to include virtual forums as well.

The Indian Contract Act, 1872 (ICA)

The ICA is a codified umbrella legislation that governs all commercial contracts in India. Under the ICA, a wagering contract is the one which cannot be enforced. The Act lays down; ‘Agreements by way of wager are void, and no suit shall be brought for recovering anything alleged to be won on any wager or entrusted to any person to abide by the result of any game or other uncertain event on which any wager is made’. Gambling, lottery and prize games have held to be wagering contracts and thus void and unenforceable. While a wagering contract is not illegal, it cannot be enforced in a court of law. Thus, the courts will not entertain any cause of action that arises out of a wagering contract.

Lotteries (Regulation) Act, 1998

This Act provides a framework for organizing lotteries in the country. Under this Act, the state governments have been authorized to promote as well as prohibit lotteries within their territorial jurisdiction. This Act also provides for the manner in which the lotteries are to be conducted and prescribes punishment in case of breach of its provision. Lotteries not authorized by the state have been made an offence under the Indian Penal Code. Several non-lottery playing states, like Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, have prohibited the sale of other state-government lotteries under this Act.

Indian Penal Code, 1860

Section 294A deals with keeping lottery office. It says that whoever keeps any office or place for the purpose of drawing any lottery not being a State lottery or a lottery authorised by the State Government, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

And whoever publishes any proposal to pay any sum, or to deliver any goods, or to do or forbear doing anything for the benefit of any person, on any event or contingency relative or applicable to the drawing of any ticket, lot, number or figure in any such lottery, shall be punished with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

Internet gambling

The law related to gambling is also applicable to online gambling. All gambling contracts are considered to be wagering contracts and it is not possible to enforce such contracts under the ICA, detailed above.

As pointed out earlier, the online lottery is the most popular form of internet gambling in India. Most companies marketing and distributing or conducting state government-sponsored lotteries through the internet are not allowed to sell their services in the states that banned lotteries. In most cases, these marketers and distributors limit their online services to consumers who are residents of the states where a lottery is permissible. Notwithstanding the fact there has been no reported case of breach by any company promoting online lotteries, most of these companies (as a safeguard) seek an undertaking from their consumers relating to their residence.

There have been instances where one state has banned the lottery of other states, including online lotteries. In a recent case, the Karnatka High Court upheld the decision of the Karnataka government to make itself a ‘lottery free zone’ by imposing a ban on lotteries of all other states, including online lotteries under the Lotteries (Regulation) Act 1998. The state government, in this case, directed the closure of the terminals and kiosks selling the online lotteries.

Enforcement over foreign jurisdictions

If the websites are hosted and operated from outside India, it may be difficult for the Indian authorities to issue any directive to close them down or prohibit their access without using its blocking powers under the ITA. The authorities have little to worry about, as Indian foreign exchange laws do not permit remittances outside India for gambling related activity, such as the purchase of lottery tickets, football pools and sweepstakes. As a result, a gambling website hosted outside India aiming at receiving money from within India cannot do so through legal channels.